Vanadium, with the chemical symbol V, is a transition metal whose discovery is attributed to Mexican mining engineer Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801. However, the element was later isolated by Nils Gabriel Sefström in Sweden and named after the Germanic goddess of beauty, Vanadis.
Vanadium is relatively scarce on Earth, constituting about 0.015% of the Earth's crust. It is primarily found in minerals such as vanadinite, carnotite, and magnetite. Vanadium is characterized by its impressive strength and temperature resistance properties. In industry, vanadium is often used as an alloying element in steel to enhance strength and hardness. These vanadium-containing steels find applications in the manufacturing of tools, springs, and aerospace components.
Future applications could emerge in energy storage and catalytic carbon dioxide conversion. Vanadium redox flow batteries are considered a promising technology for storing renewable energy sources, while vanadium-based catalysts are being researched for CO2 conversion.